Overview

Shattuck-St.Mary’s, Forest City (SSM-FC), provides a total vision for children’s learning between the ages of 3-18.  We divide our school into different Divisions according to the stages in a child’s development into an adult:
  • Early Childhood (ages 3-6)
  • Elementary School (ages 6-11)
  • Middle School (ages 11-15)
  • High School (ages 15-18)
Each Division has a Principal, who takes charge of children’s learning in that part of the school. 
 
  
Similarly, we divide the curriculum (what we want children to learn) for Early Childhood, Elementary, Middle and High School into the following general areas of learning:
  • English (including English as an additional language, pre-literacy, literacy and literature)
  • Mathematics (number, arithmetic, logic, data handling, geometry, algebra etc.)
  • Science (properties of the physical and natural world)
  • World Languages (including languages a child may have as ‘mother tongue’)
  • Social Sciences (History, Geography etc.)
  • Performing and Visual Arts (development of a child’s creative side)
  • Physical and Health Education (or Physical, Social and Health Education)
We recognize that children learn in different ways in different parts of the school.  Our curriculum and learning programs detailed below reflect not only different approaches at different ages but also a unified vision of education for the whole child.
 
The Early Childhood program at Shattuck-St.Mary’s, Forest City, uses a Reggio Emilia approach to learning. “The Reggio Emilia” approach is an innovative and inspiring approach to early childhood education that values the child as strong, capable and resilient; rich with wonder and knowledge. Every child brings with them deep curiosity and potential and this innate curiosity drives their interest to understand their world and their place within it.” (www.aneverydaystory.com/beginners-guide-to-reggio-emilia/main-principles/) We believe that young children need to have many opportunities to explore, interact socially with peers, and build social and academic skills through a carefully thought-out classroom layout and provided materials. SSM-FC’s Early Childhood program focuses on student need and interests with a highly-qualified teacher to guide, nudge, and instruct students where needed. 
 

Circle Time 

Children will participate in circle time daily in English. It is a time for whole group instruction, reflection, and story time. The children will also sing songs and share stories and understandings from the day at this time. 
 

Social Development 

Social development of young children is a priority in the Early Childhood program. When children have strong social skills they are better able to navigate the relationships that are so important to learning, collaborating, and part of a healthy lifestyle. Through authentic social interactions and scenarios, students will learn to solve problems, will learn conflict resolution strategies, and learn how to compromise at a developmentally appropriate level
 

Play-based Learning 

Research has shown that children learn best when they are playing and constructing meaning through their own interests (Hanlin, 2010, Fields, 2007, Van Hoorn, 2007). At SSM-FC we believe that through play, children are learning. With careful planning and set up, teachers will create environments that encourage and promote children to investigate, experiment, and ultimately, build understandings of various concepts.
  

Literacy 

Students enrolled in the Early Childhood program at Shattuck-St. Mary’s, Forest City will have a variety of opportunities to grow their English literacy skills. Through reading aloud, access to a variety of high quality children’s books and writing materials, the students will be encouraged to read and write for meaning. When children enter Kindergarten, the literacy instruction becomes more direct to help prepare students for the elementary program. Learning the English alphabet, the letter sounds, and different strategies will give students a strong foundation in literacy
 

Pre-Numeracy 

Foundational numeracy skills will be presented through simple counting and patterns from the world around us. The students will be exposed to numbers and patterns through math centers, nature walks, at snack time, and at many other times throughout a school day in the Pre-Kindergarten 1 and 2 classrooms. Once students enter Kindergarten, the math program becomes more direct as students build on the numeracy and patterns from preschool and add several math concepts like time, problem solving, and addition to give them a strong foundation and to prepare them for the elementary program. 
 

Learning about the World through Projects 

Early Childhood students at SSM-FC will engage in a Big Project every term with a different focus; social studies, science, or literacy. Through the project, students will come up with a list of questions and as a community they will find the answers and learn about the world around them. 
 

Technology 

Technology in the Early Childhood program at SSM-FC is used in a playful but meaningful manner, helping students advance their literacy and numeracy skills in a fun environment. We use technology that is adapted for their age group, usually without screens. The child-friendly robots give students the opportunity to learn how to control a device by coding without having to use a keyboard. Students will also use tablets to access online resources and to create digital portfolios
 

Physical Education, Music, and Art 

Students enrolled in the Early Childhood program at SSM-FC will have specialist classes in PE, music, and art. The teachers will create a program that help children develop whole body muscles like jumping, skipping, and ball handling skills in the PE classes. In Art, the teacher will use art to help young children learn to control and build the muscles in their hands through cutting, painting, and using clay. Through Music class, children will engage in using musical instruments, learning rhythm and patterns, and working together to create their own music
 

Languages 

Instruction at SSM-FC will be in English throughout the day. However, we believe that children need a strong foundation in their native language in order to fully appreciate their culture and to learn a second or third language. With that in mind, our students will be enrolled in a mother tongue program to help them develop their language skills in that language. If the student is a native English speaker, they will have the opportunity to take Mandarin or Malay as a World Language class.
At Shattuck-St-Mary’s, Forest City, we take pride in ensuring that our Elementary students develop a solid foundation in basic numeracy and literacy skills while encouraging them to explore their passions in a range of areas, from science to the arts, from engineering to athletics. 

Elementary students stay with their Homeroom Teachers for most of the day. As much as possible, students learn the skills and concepts through integrated units that show them how information is used in the real world. For example, a unit on Simple Machines (lever, pulley, inclined plane, screw, wedge, and wheel and axle), initially incorporates science, engineering, and math, but a science report introduces English writing and reading, while the robotics used to teach the concepts might also be sketched in Art class. 
 

Morning Meeting

The day starts off with a Morning Meeting. Students share news and set learning goals for the day/week with their homeroom teachers. Teachers use the opportunity to develop study and social skills, read stories to students and otherwise prepare students for a successful day of learning.
 

English Language and Literature

The language of instruction at school is English. We provide opportunities for all students to develop strong English language skills in reading and listening comprehension, speaking and writing. As students progress from learning to read to reading to learn, students are introduced to a range of genres of literature. They develop the ability to read, with deep understanding, age-appropriate books, e-books and magazines from our well-stocked school library, as well as from online resources. 

The language program incorporates the latest techniques, including using Writer’s Workshop and Reader’s Workshop teaching structures, a bespoke spelling program, and grammar lesson delivered on context. We want to make our students love being readers and authors. Special activities include Book Week, author visits, spelling bee and others.
 

English as an Additional Language 

For students whose strongest language is not English, SSM-FC provides English as an Additional Language (EAL) support. This custom-designed assistance sometimes takes the student out of their regular classroom for small group instruction. In other cases, the EAL teacher joins the regular class to provide in-class support. Moreover, our classroom and specialist teachers are provided with support to ensure that students make rapid progress in both social and academic English skills.
 

Other World Languages 

We envision that students graduating from the Elementary School will be fluent in English and in their mother tongue (or a second language for our English speakers). Many of our students come with strong skills in Mandarin, or (Bahasa) Malay or another language. Therefore, during language time, students with mother tongue proficiency in a language other than English will take lessons to further develop their academic ability in that language. The expanding range of languages will follow a state or national curriculum. 

For students whose mother tongue is English, or for language groups that are very small, students will study Mandarin or (Bahasa) Malay as a second language. These lessons will be introduced in a fun way, incorporating music and games, while progressing to vocabulary building, grammar and other conventions of the respective languages.
 

Mathematics 

The numeracy program in the Elementary School is designed to be a balanced, challenging program based on mastery and fluency. By mastery, we ensure that students fully understand a concept and receive extra help until they get there. By fluency, we work with students (and parents) so that students can perform calculations quickly and accurately, thus giving them a strong platform for further study of mathematics. In the primary school, all strands of mathematics are covered – including number, pattern, measurement, geometry (shape and space) and data management. Teachers and students use manipulatives (such as fraction pies, counting blocks and play clocks), technology, chess, and other activities and resources to build mathematical thinking.
 

Science, including Engineering (STEM)

Our Science program follows the latest science curriculum guidelines from America, the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). The NGSS organizes science learning in four strands, Physical Science, Life Science, Earth and Space Science, and Engineering. The Forest City Campus science program introduces elementary students to how scientists do their work, by taking students into  the Elementary science lab to conduct experiments. An annual science fair and the use of educational robotics are other components of our science program.
 

Social Studies (Geography, History, Economics)

How has geography guided human communities? How have ancient civilisations, like the Chinese and Egyptian societies, led us to our current situation? How has trade made some countries rich and others poor? The study of how people live and organise their societies is all the more important as technology makes our world smaller. The social studies program gives students a broad, global perspective with which to understand human society.
 

Physical Education

Weekly swimming lessons and Physical Education (PE), plus Sports Days and Swim Gala, and many sports themed co-curricular activities (CCAs, or after school clubs). Swimming and PE lessons are led by qualified PE and swimming instructors, ensuring the safety of participating students.
 

Music 

The music program is performance oriented, with students using tuned and un-tuned percussion instruments, playing the recorder and progressing to strings, brass and woodwind instruments. The music repertoire will represent the musical traditions from around the world. The Elementary School will have a performing choir and, based on student interests, instrumental ensembles. Parents may also opt for individual lessons to develop student expertise in specific instruments. 
 

Visual Arts 

The visual art program is presentation-based art, meaning that student work is developed with an expectation that it will be displayed around the campus (and possibly online). By displaying their art work, students have a real audience. By providing an online showcase, grandparents and other family members can all enjoy their artistic productions. The art program will include 2D, 3D, and digital art media from around the world to develop the skills to be a successful artist. 
 

Theatre Arts (Drama) 

The ability to use space, body, movement and voice to speak to evoke emotions to create meanings with an audience is an important leadership skill. Short plays (skits) will feature in school lessons. Moreover, larger productions will recruit students to present musical and dramatic plays to student and parent audiences. 
 

Innovation/Creativity 

Today’s world places great value on innovation and creativity. At our Faribault (USA) campus, innovation is offered through WeCreate, ScholarShift and the many Centers of Excellence. 

The Forest City Elementary School honours the same commitment to innovation. Students will have the opportunity to visit our own weCreate Center, where they have the opportunity to use various technologies, including robotics, electronics, video, music making/mixing, and other tools. With the support of specially-trained staff, students will be lightly guided towards creations of personal significance.
 

Experiential and Service Learning 

Learning inside a classroom, science lab, gymnasium or music room is not sufficient to develop the perspectives and skills of students. Therefore, Elementary students go on day trips to enhance learning. Experiential learning differs from classroom learning because students actively learn by visiting locations, seeing for themselves, doing an activity, and reflecting on it. Overnight trips to encourage independence and students start in upper primary will participate in these trips.

We believe that students in Elementary school are not too young to contribute to society. Therefore, we have students involved in various community projects. Some are in school while others involve going out into the community. They might plant gardens, entertain seniors, or clean beaches, all under the careful supervision of teachers. Through this service, they will also learn the benefit of paying back, that time is more precious than money
 

Leadership Development 

We expect Forest City Campus alumni to be leaders in various fields. We start the development of leadership skills by giving students opportunities to be leaders in school, through Student Council and other forums and roles. We complement this through giving students deliberate leadership development programs. 
 

Digital Technology 

Today, people have access to gigabytes of information on their smartphones and computers. Our Elementary school leverages involves the power of technology by incorporating a 1-to-1 tablet program into daily lessons. Students will have their own tablet that they will use to personalise their learning, under the careful guidance of teachers and educational technology coaches. The school is equipped with wireless communication and effective bandwidth to access a variety of free and subscription web sites.

Other educational technologies in use include robotics, sensors, probes, voice and video recorders and other tools.

Student Assessment 
The most important reason to see how students are doing is to improve instruction and learning. Formative assessment is where teachers check that students understand the lesson. If students understand, the teacher can continue to the next concept or skill. If not, the teacher re-teaches the lesson, using different techniques, ensuring that all students are progressing well. Teachers will use a range of techniques and tools to determine how students are doing and use this information in subsequent lessons. Enrichment will be offered where appropriate, for students particularly strong in certain areas of the curriculum, such as math. 

At the end of a unit, the teacher will conduct summative assessment for a final evaluation of the student. Assessment techniques and tools include tests, exams, research papers, essays, presentations, speeches, group projects, and performances. Exit tickets, where each student has to answer a question or reflect on a lesson, will be used as students leave a class. In addition to report cards, parents will have access to digital portfolios.
 

Co-Curricular Activities (CCAs) 

The Elementary School, working with the rest of the Forest City Campus, offers a wide range of after school (and weekend) activities. Click here for more information.
 

At Shattuck-St-Mary’s, Forest City, our Middle School builds on the Elementary school experience and prepares our students for High School. We continue with the Shattuck tradition of high academic expectations and encourage our students to explore new opportunities in their academic program, activities and sport in Grades 6 –9. 

Our Middle School students will have the experience in Grade 6 of moving from a ‘home room’ teacher to a different teacher for each subject. The students will have an ‘advisory’ program, and one teacher will be the guardian of the academic and personal development of every student. Our focus is on supporting all students to be comfortable and independent in their academic learning and school life. 
 

Advisory 

The day for the Middle School Students starts with an Advisory Time. Students will meet in groups with their Advisor to receive important news about the school day or school events. This time is also used for the advisor to discuss and answer questions and to check that all students have been successful in completing homework. The program will assist students with study skills, encourage friendships and ensure that everyone is ready and well equipped to start the academic day. 
 

English Language and Literature

Every class in the Middle School will be in English. Students will read, write and speak English in all subject areas. All teachers and school staff will support the development of English language skills at every opportunity in every subject area and in social and activity programs. Teachers will assist students in learning the academic language for each particular subject area. There are specific classes within the English subject classrooms for students to develop specific skills in reading, writing, grammar, vocabulary, public speaking, and debate. Students will learn communication skills through the study and understanding of literature, non-fiction books, media, and classroom interaction. 
 

English As An Additional Language 

There will be additional teachers in our Middle School to support all students who are not native English speakers. The level of assistance will depend on the needs of each student, and these specialist teachers will work in classrooms with students and provide additional classes in English as needed. The aim of these teachers will be to help students understand the academic content of their subjects in English as well as developing strong reading, writing and speaking skills. Every teacher in our Middle School will work with students in developing strong English language skills
 

Mathematics 

The middle school math department is committed to the development of strong mathematical skills that will be utilized in the mathematics, science and technology classrooms. All students are assessed prior to their entry into the Middle School and the appropriate level of math instruction chosen for them. The mathematics program will develop the skill level of all students, assess individual needs and provide a program that caters for the development of all. 
 

Science 

Our Science program is based on standards from the United States. The teaching of these standards ensures a strong preparation for the rigors of the high school program as well as developing passion and excitement for the Sciences in the Middle School program. Our laboratories will give all students the opportunity to engage in research, experimentation, and laboratory experience that will support development and knowledge of Science and its connection to our world. 
 

STEM 

What is STEM? STEM is the combination and integration of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Our students will be taught skills and processes in each subject area but will come to utilize these understandings in our STEM program. Our program will include ‘project based learning’ where students will be required to find answers to questions that require attention to each of the four components of STEM. These investigations will be collaborative, group projects that are mentored and supported by a faculty member and our connections within the community. 
 

World Languages 

When they are proficient in English, students in the Middle school will have the opportunity to learn a new language or to continue in the academic study of their home language. We encourage students to maintain their ‘mother tongue’ at an academic level.

For students with mother tongue English, there will be other language choices. The Middle School will offer language trips for students to experience and practice their language skills in other international settings. 
 

Social Studies

The Middle school runs an innovative and exciting program that combines the teaching of Social Studies (History, Geography, Economics) with English. The purpose is to ensure that students are learning the skills of informational reading and writing in the context of ‘real life’ information from the Social Studies areas. The class time is divided into time for teaching English reading and writing skills and a time for working with the content areas of the Social Sciences. 
 

Arts 

The world of music, drama, and visual art will be an integral part of the Middle school community. We will work to showcase the talents of our students in both school and community performance events and provide structured lessons to support development in all areas of the arts. The daily schedule will provide opportunities for students to select electives for academic study in the area of music (instrumental or choral), visual art, and drama. As students experience different areas of the Arts program, they will discover new interests, knowledge, and opportunity for further advancement in their subject of choice. 
 

Technology 

A technology integration teacher will plan with teachers how our students will use the computer to support learning in all subject areas. In the STEM program, specific and advanced computer skills will be taught. Other modern technologies will also be available, including educational robotics, scanners and electronic probes

In addition to digital technology, other technologies will be used to develop design and engineering skills. 3D printers, laser cutters, and architectural design software will be used to give students skills in engineering design. 
 

Physical Education and Personal Growth 

Our Middle School will be attentive to the physical and emotional development of adolescents through the PE and Personal Growth program. Both programs will work together to help students understand the importance of personal fitness and healthy choices. The personal growth program will be designed to support students in developing skills and attitudes that lead to positive interactions with others and personal confidence in their daily life as both a student and a member of the community. Our Physical Education teachers and counselors will work together with advisors to support the physical, social and emotional growth of all our students. 

Student Leadership is an important part of the Middle school program and personal growth of students. Providing all students with leadership opportunities helps our students learn to manage time, work as a team, set goals, solve problems and this is an integral part of helping prepare our students for not only the High School but for life. 
 

Assessment 

The Middle School is an important time in academic development, and the assessment of students identifies the strengths and areas of challenge across the curriculum

Each teacher will design assessments that demonstrate how well students are meeting the expected standards in their subject area and will use this information to inform parents but also to better inform their teaching and the needs of each student in their care. 

The assessments will take many different forms during and at the end of a unit of work to provide a range of information about the learning needs of each child.

Students will be working towards the award of the Shattuck-St. Marys High School Diploma. Award of the diploma will be based on the award of course credits, based on performance in required classes during the years of High School.

Mathematics
Mathematics at SSM-FC is intended to both develop foundational knowledge of skills as well as a growth mindset that includes perseverance, problem solving, clear mathematical communication and defense of ideas. Placement in mathematics courses is dependent on ability and previous work in mathematics, not on age or grade. For returning Shattuck-St.Mary’s students, the current math teacher makes a placement recommendation in early spring for the next academic year. For newcomers to SSM-FC, placement is determined by school administration, based on careful review of records and recommendations from previous school(s), standardized test results, and placement testing.

English
As in other parts of the school, we aim to develop students’ competence in English in all four areas of language skill:
  • Speaking
  • Listening
  • Reading
  • Writing
In all grades at Shattuck-St. Mary’s School, English teachers emphasize the fact that writing is a process . Therefore, students at each level continually are reminded of the steps they should take as they write. These include: prewriting or brainstorming, organizing ones ideas, writing at least one rough draft, revising thoroughly, editing and proofreading, and finally publishing. These basic steps apply to all types of formal composition, whether creative writing, exposition, or poetry. Our students learn to develop their own style, while gaining the solid fundamentals of English grammar. Key to development of skill in writing is the active role of the teacher, guiding students to evaluate the logic and persuasiveness of what they have written. Thus, they develop the life skill of communicating clear ideas through clear writing.

World Languages
The world is a global community . Learning to communicate in more than one language is an essential life skill. We offer Mandarin, and Behasa Melayu (Malay). Students wishing to pursue other languages may be able to do so through an independent study program. At a minimum, our students take three consecutive years of the same language in grades 9-12. For newcomers to Shattuck-St. Mary’s, placement is determined by the Division Principal, based on careful review of records and recommendations from previous school(s), standardized test results, and placement testing. English As A Second Language students will receive additional English support as their World Language requirement.

Science
Science instruction allows students to understand the world around them and develop their skill at making predictions, measuring components, calculating results, documenting lab work, following directions, using technology, and building a strong science vocabulary. Students will take Biology in grade 9, Chemistry in grade 10, and choose from a menu of Science options in grades 11 and 12.

Social Sciences: History, Geography and Economics
Our course offerings are designed to equip students with the knowledge, skills, and character necessary to become active participants in our diverse, changing world. We engage and encourage students to develop their own questions about the past, create bridges between events of the past and our world today, and foster a lasting interest in the discipline.

Arts
All our students are engaged in the Arts. At a minimum, they take three years of arts classes. We anticipate offering courses in Visual Art and Music as well as after school activities that may include video production, photography, and drama.

Athletics
Physical fitness is part of a balanced lifestyle. The Athletics Program at SSM-FC will entail participation in sports such as soccer, basketball, swimming, track and field athletics and badminton. Participation in Athletics is a Graduation requirement.

Blended Instruction
Classes for grade 11 and 12 students are delivered using a blended instructional model. Blended instruction is a form of content delivery that blends the best of in-class instruction with the best of online learning. Blended classes allow for students to move through the curriculum at their own pace by demonstrating mastery of content while also having the class teacher and peers available as a resource when support is needed.

In our blended classes students attend class in the normal, formal way every Monday through Thursday. On Fridays, classes are scheduled but attendance only occurs when the student or the teacher requires it. Less demanding content such as lectures are offered online so that students can learn when and where they wish. Blended instruction frees up class time so that students are able to spend more of their school day in rich learning activities such as project based learning, peer collaboration, one-on-one or small group coaching by their teacher, or an internship with a mentor.

Assessment
Students are assessed according to rigorous standards, both formally and informally. In addition to tests and quizzes in class, students also develop an ePortfolio which included artifacts of their learning and reflections on their experiences both from their core courses and their ScholarShift Modules and Senior Initiative.

The School Day
Grade 9: The school day is divided into periods. In grade 9 students attend math, science, English, Social Studies, Modern Language, Advisory, PE, and Art or music courses, as selected. In preparation for the ScholarShift program, students will use an online platform to receive online content, and students will have some instruction that introduces blended instruction. In addition, teachers include interdisciplinary projects, oral presentation skills, collaborative work, and research projects as part of our students’ academic work.

Grade 10: The structure of the academic program for this grade level remains the same as in prior years. Students will begin to experience more blended instruction as an introduction to the requirements of personal responsibility and time management that will be required in later years. Teachers and advisors will coach students regarding time management and making the most of their learning opportunities. In preparation for ScholarShift, we have added a weCreate element to the Grade 10 student experience. We believe that exposure to and exploration of the opportunities available in the WeCreate Center will enhance our students’ work in their current academic classes, their level of engagement and preparation for ScholarShift, and the skill set they bring with them to college and their professional careers. To that end, our weCreate faculty has developed a self-paced curriculum for students to complete over the course of the year. Students will follow tutorials and complete mini-projects in Sketch-Up, Photoshop, iMovie, GarageBand, and other weCreate elements. Teachers will be available to advise students as they progress through this curriculum, and advisors will help monitor student completion.

Grade 11: In grade 11 Friday courses are taught using the blended model. Using the flexibility of our blended course model, juniors will complete a parallel curriculum in addition to their academic courses. The parallel curriculum is comprised of a series of six ScholarShift Modules. These mini-courses cover a diverse set of exciting and engaging interdisciplinary topics and will introduce students to new skills and concepts that they do
not normally have the chance to learn from their core classes. Facilitated by SSM-FC faculty and staff and by guest lecturers, students will step out of their comfort zone and learn more about themselves before they head off to college. We are excited for students to be able to choose their own path through this rich curriculum, reflect on who they are as people, as learners, and as leaders, and engage deeply with ideas and problems they see in the world today.
Grade 11 students will have distribution requirements to consider as they choose their modules. They will choose one module from each of four categories; their final two modules can be from any category they like. The categories are:
  • Developing Creativity
  • Exploring Self
  • Learning How
  • Asking Why
Modules will be held in single-day intensive meetings or spread out in multiple shorter meeting times; they will be scheduled in several different time frames to accommodate all of our students.

While we plan to help each student develop a plan for the year, we also anticipate offering some pop-up modules throughout the year as interesting opportunities arise, we develop relationships with guest teachers and volunteers, and students discover new interests.

Advisors will be the primary mentor for juniors as they orchestrate their academic week, schedule their modules for the year, and begin to imagine ideas for senior year.

Grade 12: In addition to their core program, Grade 12 students will extend their learning through their Senior Initiative . The Senior Initiative is a student driven project or experience that may include internships in the local community, creative and innovative endeavors in our weCreate Center, significant service learning opportunities, critical inquiry and research into issues of personal and academic interest, deeper exploration of a module experience, and/or other opportunities which allow them to explore their passions and learn
as they do, not as they sit!

Grade 12 students will also prepare their Senior Speech , and take on a leadership responsibility which may include acting as a student proctor or working in our communications and advancement department.

English as an Additional Language (EAL)
English is our language of instruction and communication for all classes except Modern Language courses. Students should use English as their language of communication with teachers, students, and staff members. Both American and British English are equally acceptable in speaking and writing. The use of English ensures that:
  • Students practice and improve their English language skills.
  • Vocabulary and grammar specific to the subject matter will be reinforced.
  • All students regardless of nationality and first language can benefit fully from all lessons.
  • Students should be aware at all times during the school day that communication in any language other than English may exclude others from their conversation. As an important matter of courtesy, therefore, English should be the social as well as academic language of interaction.
 
 

Questions? We can help!